The hottest supply chain management starts from ma

  • Detail

Supply chain management starts from mastering materials

the selection of suppliers should be determined by classification according to the price of materials, the difficulty of obtaining and whether they are key components. Whether to choose one or more suppliers must be determined according to the current popular transaction mode

the 56 word motto guiding principle of a well-known computer parts assembly and manufacturing enterprise is of great reference value to enterprises when weighing suppliers: focus on control and master the whole process; Through transfer, zero base profit; Control the distribution and serve the government; Preferred manufacturers, only for meager profits; Self made parts, sharing profits; Project oriented, making profits alone; Fully outsource and stabilize the price difference. According to this standard, procurement can freely give play to the customized supplier selection operation mode

first of all, the general production management group of the supply chain center must analyze the products and classify the materials, then the conditions for selecting suppliers can be generated, which can be provided to buyers. Then issue the delivery note (DN) to the supplier according to the purchase demand, and launch the relevant purchase, sale and inventory control operation mode

for example, the core issue of the supply chain is around material control. Mastering the speed of material acquisition and movement has become the key point of management. The role of suppliers is naturally linked to the value of materials or the difficulty in obtaining them. Therefore, the manufacturing process of products should be classified before materials can be classified. Through the analysis of part explosion diagram or supply logistics diagram, the importance of materials can be verified, and then the corresponding relationship between suppliers can be sorted out. After obtaining the material strategy or strategy, the cooperation degree of suppliers is naturally affected, so the selection of suppliers is closely related to the classification of materials

from the perspective of general manufacturing industry, the classification of materials can be divided into five types: A, B, C, D and E. Class A is also known as GSP (Global sensitive procurement), which is the so-called global highly sensitive procurement materials, also known as the materials produced by class a rogue suppliers. The following are the key secrets of grading and classification of various materials and supplier selection: class a strategy: key control, whole process control, through transfer, zero base profit. For GSP (a) materials, such as in the computer manufacturing industry, they are key component materials (central processing unit, hard disk, memory module, etc.). These materials are very expensive and difficult to obtain. Usually, there is only one supplier, with a single source, and the customer designates and arranges the customer to place a drop ship. Or the customer specifies AVL (approved vendor list), which is distributed by the customer

for this type of material, due to the price risk, it is not allowed to overstock inventory. In addition, such materials need to place orders several months in advance, and the factory cannot be shut down due to shortage. Therefore, we should hold the concept of not talking about profit as long as we have goods for such materials. Close contact should be made with customers and suppliers to confirm the delivery date and exempt from inspection (for materials in the limited competitive market and the exclusive supply market with monopolized supply sources, the manufacturer does not have the inspection ability). Strictly control the quantity, set the GSP warehouse and monitoring system, from the manufacturer's shipment to the GSP warehouse receipt, issue materials according to the work order until the delivery of finished products, monitor the whole process and track thoroughly. Except that the drop ship materials are directly transported to the GSP warehouse to maintain 72 hour inventory, the procurement should make full use of the preparation period to reduce inventory risk, and through information fusion, control the actual material condition of global GSP materials, and make timely settlement (unless there is significant delay in the financial notice of accounts receivable). Manufacturers are required to provide FAE (Field Application Engineering) services to the government and provide education and training

in the limited competitive market with only a few suppliers to choose from, and the exclusive supply market with monopolized supply sources, buyers need to adopt the principle of strategic cooperation to obtain better homogeneous quality, closer partnership, better production arrangement and more after-sales service

class B strategy: control distribution, provide services to the government, select manufacturers, and only aim at small profits for class B materials, such as cards, keyboards, mice, etc. in the computer manufacturing industry. Such materials are popular, and there are many competitors in the market. You can choose one or more suppliers at your discretion. The way of selecting suppliers is PSL (preferred supplier list), which is conducive to the cooperation between our company and suppliers

for class B material management, it is necessary to reasonably allocate the quota between suppliers and require door-to-door service (that is, the so-called VIM supply method, goods are available when needed, not zero inventory). Choose suppliers with good quality and service, and only earn a little profit. We should consider the market demand trend, make strategic procurement and optimize the manufacturer's operation mode. Provide supplier forecasts and blank orders, and submit them to the purchasing department to place orders in time according to the MRP calculation results of the material demand plan. VMI (vendor management inventory, the operation mode of free storage by suppliers and payment after use) management, namely, take and use, and transfer risks. Suppliers are required to deal with defective products on site in a timely manner, that is, to provide instant services similar to FAE and provide education and training

in addition to choosing their own suppliers, such materials are generally designated by customers, because these materials are the main components of computers, which have certain technical difficulties in production and play a very important role in the composition and performance of computers. Customers will pay attention to quality, but manufacturers also have certain purchasing power and can independently allocate the purchase proportion. Usually, one or more suppliers are used, and they are competitors, so we can talk about VMI services with customers and suppliers. The purpose is to transfer price risk. The procurement method also uses electronic inquiry (EBID) procurement bidding, which is conducive to price competition. According to the price, the amount of coal capacity removal in 2017 may still be between 150million and 200million tons The principle of reputation lays a foundation for the continued and rapid growth of the company in the future. To achieve PSL, you can also suggest customers to eliminate some inferior suppliers, or persuade customers to slowly turn to independent development and manufacturing, and strive for more profits

c strategy: self making parts and sharing profits

for class C materials, such as chassis, motherboard, heat sink and other materials in the computer manufacturing industry with the increase of experimental power. Such materials are profitable. You can choose one supplier (outsourcing) or self-made parts at your discretion. The supplier selection method should be RSL (restricted supplier list)

for such materials, the fae/planner, the general production manager, is stationed in the joint procurement office for centralized office operation. The manufacturer and the supplier are in parallel, and there are goods when they are needed, and zero inventory when they are not needed. VMI management mode is adopted, that is, immediate use and monthly settlement

c type is a popular material. Customers believe in your strength. The company can develop and produce by itself. You can also find one or more suppliers. The prices of these materials are relatively moderate. Generally, manufacturers can produce them by themselves as long as they are approved by customers. Manufacturers try to develop, design and produce independently and share more profits. You can also choose several better suppliers, use VMI management to supply goods in time, use ERP system to connect to the supplier's daily allocation and delivery plan, and combine e-bid to conduct electronic inquiry. We should ensure that there are goods when we want them, zero inventory when we don't want them, and achieve the RSL business selection mode. Following the principle of equal distribution, we should constantly find good suppliers and eliminate suppliers with poor services. In the future, we can adopt the joint venture or M & a business model to strive for self-made parts

d strategy: Engineering led, independent profit

d materials are mainly for local delivery materials recognized by customers and general materials that the company can handle at its sole discretion, such as i/o patch cords, screws, stickers, etc. in the computer manufacturing industry, it is recommended to select more than one (RSL) supplier

for such materials, the company can completely develop them independently, which can be approved by customers. Product design is self-directed, and competition from multiple suppliers can win better profits. Carry out e-bid and VMI management together with class B and C materials. Gather demand resources and develop local strategic alliance suppliers. Decentralized procurement, and multiple suppliers distribute orders equally for delivery. Stabilize the outsourcing cooperation nature of suppliers and establish a win-win strategy of inspection free and inspection free

for suppliers of such materials, the specifications of both parties should be coordinated to reduce operating costs, manufacturing costs and procurement costs. Through engineering and quality guidance, inspection exemption is adopted, and defective products are unconditionally returned (process defective products are processed offline). The fee payable handover point can be set in the last process before production and shipment (one for settlement), which can be realized by ERP plus SFC (shop floor control) information online supplier, or online through relevant IT software. Therefore, DN (delivery notes) of such suppliers is controlled for delivery, and data auxiliary information such as forecast (daily production plan) and VPO (vendor purchase order) are provided to manufacturers for material supply, manufacturing and delivery

e strategy: full outsourcing and stable price difference

e materials are mainly for products authorized and approved by customers, such as packaging materials in the computer industry. The number of suppliers selected is usually 1 (RSL method) single material single supply source

such materials have simple process and low risk. They can all be produced by one supplier to earn the price difference. Adopt JIT delivery mode and establish double warehouse supply method (site must be provided and safety stock must be established). At the same time, the supplier shall cooperate closely and bear the inventory risk by itself. The procurement is localized, and the transaction conditions are formulated according to the product characteristics. Centralized procurement, increase buying power (volume for price)

as the market demand changes faster and faster, the manufacturing adjustment frequency and material demand of enterprises change faster and faster. The traditional supply and demand method has been unable to share the information with suppliers in time, which is easy to cause the overstock of inventory of both sides. In order to cope with the new challenges, the current manufacturing industry should adopt the JIT Procurement and delivery mode for class E Materials in time, so that suppliers can conclude transactions on time when needed (neither in advance nor delayed)

jit procurement can achieve three purposes: to achieve zero inventory; Improve the quality of purchased goods and reduce quality costs; Reduce the purchase price. In order to meet the requirements of JIT Procurement technology, manufacturing enterprises must, on the one hand, provide suppliers with appropriate and effective demand plans (daily production plans, ready to use), incorporate suppliers into their own supply chain management system, and make them their own virtual factory for synchronous and parallel management, so as to reduce the inventory level of both parties, stabilize supply, and improve the efficiency of the whole supply chain

on the other hand, the manufacturing industry should establish a long-term cooperative relationship with product suppliers, emphasize the basis of suppliers' joining interests, so that suppliers can fully understand and master the significance, technology and standards of JIT Procurement, and ensure the realization of JIT. It is found in practical work experience that strengthening cooperation with suppliers and realizing small batch and frequent logistics distribution and delivery are the key issues of JIT Procurement

all walks of life have different or similar practices. The strategic mode in selecting the number of suppliers does not have to be 100% planned with reference to the above standards. Industry, product and material disassembly will also have different practices. However, we can draw the tiger's skin and try to reform our own guidance strategy and operation mode

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI