The hottest supply chain management revitalizes En

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The so-called supply chain refers to the chain structure formed between upstream and downstream enterprises involved in providing products and services to end customers in the process of production and circulation. Supply chain management is to use computer network technology to comprehensively plan, plan, organize, coordinate and control the business flow, logistics, information flow and capital flow in the supply chain

in the actual operation of enterprises, there are two effective supply chain management modes. One is the supply chain management mode represented by the rapid response system first adopted by Wal Mart in cooperation with textile enterprises; The other is the effective customer response system, also known as the supply chain management mode of real demand correspondence, which was first adopted by the U.S. retail industry in cooperation with FMCG manufacturers. In terms of using rapid response system for supply chain management, the vast majority of enterprises believe that enterprises should not reserve "products", but should prepare "elements". When customers need it, they can extract "elements" at the fastest speed, timely "assemble" and provide customers with the required products and services, which is the best mode of modern enterprise management. In terms of using effective customer response system for supply chain management, many enterprises believe that the core competitiveness of modern enterprise management is to meet the needs of final customers and minimize the cost of logistics process by optimizing the process of providing products and services and accurately respond to the needs of customers

although the above two supply chain management modes are slightly different in specific management methods, from an economic point of view, they follow the same law, that is, according to the principle of minimum transaction costs, re-establish the efficiency boundary of enterprises and expand the scale of enterprise alliance, so as to meet the needs and preferences of end customers, so as to truly win the share of the end consumer market, Enable enterprises to obtain long-term and stable development space

supply chain management: efficiency first

whether it is a rapid response system or an effective customer response system, there are some common characteristics in supply chain management. First of all, we have made profound changes to the enterprise organization, breaking the past functional and division based enterprise organization structure within the enterprise, re integrating the functions of procurement, production, logistics and marketing, and establishing a process oriented enterprise organization structure with smooth supply of products and services based on customer demand, so that the transaction of products and services and the value-added process can be smoothly realized. Therefore, in the process of supply chain management, the main consideration of enterprise strategic objective positioning is to satisfy the final customers. The control standard of the implementation process of strategic objectives is mainly the level of customer satisfaction, and the implementation of strategic measures is mainly based on the level of logistics services. The direct benefit of adopting supply chain management for enterprises is to consolidate and win market share, and be able to clearly know when and where customers are, what to buy, how much to buy, ability to pay, and complaints. This is the decisive decision-making basis that every enterprise wants to know most in the production and operation, but it is the most difficult to grasp. Using supply chain management can better solve these problems. The second direct benefit of supply chain to enterprises is that because the production and operation of enterprises have a basis, it can greatly reduce the logistics costs caused by excessive inventory, insufficient inventory, convective transportation, circuitous transportation, repeated procurement, blind procurement, blind production, excessive production, excessive sales and chaotic sales, so as to improve the operating efficiency of enterprises. We can find a lot of empirical evidence in the production and operation of enterprises

secondly, it puts forward new requirements for the association of enterprise organizations. Outside the enterprise, supply chain management requires upstream and downstream enterprises to change from the competitive relationship of "you lose and I win" in the past to a win-win strategic partnership, and evaluate the business performance of the enterprise from the value that the whole supply chain can bring to customers. This requires partners in the supply chain to share information, benefits and risks, establish a division of labor and cooperation system, and give full play to the professional advantages of partner members. In each supply chain, a brand company or multinational group is the core enterprise to determine common goals, establish unified rules, coordinate unified production and management, and share common interests. This kind of enterprise alliance with core enterprises as the leading Party of the supply chain is a new type of enterprise alliance organization, which is not only different from the past cartels, syndicates, trusts and enterprise groups, but also higher than the joint way of these enterprise organizations. The combination of enterprises in the supply chain is a purposeful and dynamic adaptive organization that crosses the organizational boundary, asset boundary, function boundary, business boundary and business boundary, and takes a certain order or contract as the basis of cooperation events. Therefore, the value of the supply chain from enterprises is higher than that of enterprises. In today's world, the competition of a single enterprise that is separated from the supply chain will inevitably fail, and only by participating in the competition in the supply chain can it have vitality

third, a large number of information technologies that can represent the advanced application level in the world today have been adopted. In the supply chain, you can count a large number of information application technologies, such as bar code, electronic ordering system, sales time point system, data exchange system, advance delivery list technology, electronic support system, supplier managed inventory, continuous replenishment system, etc., which are not only the centralized embodiment of advanced logistics management ideas in the application information system, but also provide a rich management mode for enterprise production and operation management. On the one hand, these management models can grasp the terminal needs of end customers in real time, so they can accurately determine the best-selling, slow-moving, inventory, out of stock, price increase, price reduction, out of stock, replenishment, production and procurement opportunities. On the other hand, by integrating the supply chain cooperation system and operation mechanism, we can make a rapid and effective response to the supply of products and services to the market, customers and demanders. In the 21st century, with diversified needs and personalized consumption, the most important core element of enterprise production and operation is speed. Specifically, this speed is mainly reflected in the rapid and effective response to customer needs

theoretical analysis of supply chain management

in classical economic theory, enterprise scale is explained by the concept of economies of scale. However, this theory can not explain the type of cooperation between upstream and downstream enterprises in the supply chain. Transaction cost economics believes that enterprises are substitutes for the market, and the transaction costs of enterprises can be reduced through the internalization of external transactions. This explains that the enterprise and the market are two alternative ways of resource allocation. The enterprise alternative market can reduce the transaction cost of using the market mechanism to allocate resources, but it will increase the resulting internal management cost of the enterprise. If the savings in transaction costs are enough to compensate for the increase in management costs, then an enterprise that takes internal allocation of resources as the main way will emerge. Although transaction cost economics gives us a good and reasonable theoretical framework for thinking about resource allocation, no one has used it to explain the fascinating and exciting logistics secret of supply chain

more than 40 years after Coase first proposed the concept of transaction costs in his article "the nature of enterprises", that is, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Williamson further deepened the research on transaction costs. Williamson summarized the factors affecting transaction costs as follows: ① market uncertainty; ② The market competition mechanism is difficult to play a role; ③ Asset specificity of trading partners; 5 limited transaction rationality; ⑤ Opportunistic behavior and other five aspects, and proposed the use of asset companies with advanced equipment and professional experience, the degree of technical specificity to measure transaction costs. From the perspective of North and Zhang Wuchang, who later engaged in such research, they regarded all production and exchange activities that were not guided by the "invisible hand" of the market as organized activities, the organizational cost was the transaction cost, and the essence of the organization was different contractual arrangements. Coase's research provides a good philosophical basis for us to carry out supply chain management research, while Williamson, North and Zhang Wuchang's research brings us many useful ideas

although the research on Logistics Economics in China has just begun, after the continuous rise in the price of copper foil in recent years, our research on supply chain, especially the analysis of a large number of supply chain management cases, can basically draw the following positive conclusions. First, economic globalization makes the geographical distribution of resources more extensive, the refinement of international division of labor makes the comparative advantage more obvious, and the popularization of information technology makes the communication between enterprises more convenient and timely. These three performance indicators are shown in Table 3. External factors in the production and operation of enterprises are a fundamental trend, which has a fundamental impact on enterprise scale, enterprise cooperation and enterprise organization. The result of these three factors is that the scale of a single enterprise becomes smaller, while the scale of cooperation between enterprises is expanding. Supply chain is the strong evidence and the best explanation of this economic phenomenon. Second, from the perspective of the function and role of the supply chain, the function is mainly reflected in breaking the specificity of the assets of member enterprises in the supply chain and changing the specificity into commonality. To achieve this, the leading Party of the supply chain must launch a resource integration activity to make member enterprises obey the order mobilization. The role of supply chain is mainly reflected in the balance with market demand. Supply chain is the supply system of products and services. In today's economic environment with high economic development and market mechanism can play a full role, excessive supply means waste, and insufficient supply means loss of sales opportunities. Only when we provide products and services of the required variety, quantity and quality to the place of demand at the time of need, can we make full use of resources in a good supply system. The supply chain is exactly the best embodiment of this demand supply mode, according to Zhu Changchun, Secretary General of China Polyurethane Industry Association, and the rapid response system and effective customer response system provide a good method system for the implementation of this mode. Third, the biggest advantage of adopting supply chain management is to eliminate uncertainty. Uncertainty is actually an operational risk of an enterprise. Eliminating uncertainty is eliminating operational risk. In terms of eliminating market demand, price fluctuations and other uncertainties, because the supply chain adopts a real-time sales time point system, it can correctly grasp the sales status and trends, and provide a basis for the reasonable arrangement of logistics activities. In terms of eliminating instability in the supply chain, because the member enterprises of the supply chain have mechanisms of information sharing, benefit sharing and risk sharing, it can make the cooperative relationship between member enterprises stable, transactions stable and benefits stable. These are the three main conclusions we have drawn from our in-depth study of supply chain in recent years

economic explanation of supply chain phenomenon

in the supply chain, the transactions between upstream and downstream enterprises have duality. From the perspective of transactions between two enterprises, it belongs to the relationship between enterprises and external transactions. However, from the perspective of the whole supply chain, the transaction between the two enterprises belongs to the transaction within the organization. such

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